Thursday, March 22, 2007
Timeline in Holly Springs
1862 – Slavery ends in Holly Springs; Ida B. Wells is born in the city; the Holly Springs Contraband Camp is established and housed nearly 6,000 African war refugees. Holly Springs becomes a recruitment station for African-American Union soldiers. An army school was established for African-American children in the contraband camp.
1863 – The Emancipation Proclamation went into effect on January 1; it was designed to free all enslaved Africans in the rebellious Confederate states of the South. It allowed African-Americans to officially join the U.S. Colored Troops who fought to end slavery.
1865 – Slavery officially ends in the United States. The 13th Amendment was passed proclaiming neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall exist within the United States. The infamous Mississippi Black Codes are issued by the Mississippi Legislature to limit the rights of African-Americans as citizens. Labor contracts were introduced and all able-bodied African-Americans were required to have one or risk being jailed.
1866 – Congress passes the first Civil Rights Act; Asbury Methodist Episcopal Church becomes the first African-American church in Holly Springs; Shaw University (now Rust College) is organized as the first university for African-Americans in Mississippi, and chartered in 1870.
1868 – Congress passes the 14th Amendment; Methodist Episcopal Church, North purchases 85 acres for Shaw University and moves to its current site. Hopewell Baptist Church is organized, at the time, located in Butts Alley in the vicinity of Maury Street.
1870 – The State of Mississippi is readmitted to the Union; Congress passes the 15th Amendment giving African-American males the right to vote in Holly Springs; the Mississippi State Normal School opens to train African-American teachers with a professor, Logan Gorman, as its first principal. Shaw University is chartered by the Mississippi Legislature.
1870 - The first public school opens for African-Americans in Holly Springs; it consisted of two combined private schools – Asbury School and Hopewell School - and is called the City Public School; Belle Caruthers is the first teacher. Alexander Phillips is the first African-American appointed to serve on the Marshall County School Board (there was only one school district in the county at the time).
1871 – The City Public School for African-Americans is renamed Miller’s Institute and moves from Asbury Methodist Church to a two-story renovated jail and jailor’s dwelling. It had an enrollment of 43 students.
1872 - Logan Gorman and Mack Hill are elected as the first African-American aldermen in Holly Springs; Jim Hill of Holly Springs is the first African-American elected to the Mississippi Legislature representing Marshall County.
1872 – The Holly Springs Missionary Baptist Association is organized with 28 Baptist churches; it is one of the oldest African-American Baptist associations in the State of Mississippi.
1873 – Hiram Revels, the first African-American U.S. Senator in the United States and the founder of Alcorn University moves to Holly Springs. He died in 1901 and is buried in Hill Crest Cemetery.
1874 – George Washington Albright is elected as the first African-American state senator from Marshall County in the Mississippi Senate; Jim Hill serves as the Secretary of State for Mississippi from 1874 to 1878.
1877 – Federal troops were withdrawn from Holly Springs, Jackson and Vicksburg, resulting in a reign of terror by the KKK on African-Americans in the state.
1878 – Yellow Fever Epidemic rages in Holly Springs and Marshall County, reducing the population from 2,406 inhabitants down to 1,500 with 1,200 being African-Americans and only 300 whites.
1879 – Anderson Chapel Colored Methodist Church is organized next to the “Old Bone Yard” cesspool located at College and West Boundary.
1880 – Adam Simpson is the last elected African-American from Holly Springs to represent the county in the Mississippi House of Representatives until 2005.
1883 – The Civil Rights Act of 1866 is held unconstitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court.
1890 – African-Americans were disenfranchised as voters in Holly Springs when the Mississippi Legislature passed new voting laws. Upper Mississippi Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church is organized in Asbury Methodist Episcopal Church.
1900 – Miller’s Institute, the public school for African-Americans in Holly Springs, burns under suspicious circumstances.
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